Trìtolo ha scritto:
Ma la donna con la cassa luminosa che custodiva gelosamente che fine ha fatto?
L'hanno soccorsa?Le hanno sottratto il pacco?E' stata soccorsa da altre navi misteriose o "navi lievitanti"?E' fuggita?
Dai disegni della donna si poi notano differenze palesi... Sono due documenti differenti o presenti nello stesso?
Poi la storianel documento Hyouryuukishuu racconta di una nave(quindi che va su acqua), non un disco volante (presente invece nel libro Kyokutei Bakin) come si evince dai disegni... sicuro che hanno tradotto bene?
Inoltre i simboli che vengono riportati nei disegni postati, sono simili ma non uguali
Knukle ha scritto:
Ne hanno parlato in una puntata di Voyager. Sono pagine di due documenti diversi ma di epoca simile.
Per quanto riguarda i segni, sono differenti solo per qualche dettaglio. Le differenze sono minime, mentre le somiglianze sono davvero palesi. E' probabile che chi ha disegnato i simboli, ossia due o più amanuensi, abbia ricordato in maniera un pò diversa alcuni particolari. ma sono gli stessi simboli, si vede.
Enkidu ha scritto:
Rimane in sospeso la questione di come sia andata a finire la storia.... la donna, la nave e la scatola in mano alla donna, che fine hanno fatto?
By: Kazuo Tanaka
Intriguing UFO-like stories written in the Japanese books Toen Shousetsu and Ume no Chiri, which were published in 1825 and 1844 respectively, are apparently fictions based on Japanese folklore. Illustrations of the UFO-like boats in these books are results of a combination of folklore and imagination.
Two Japanese books allegedly describe occurrences of an interesting incident in 1803, similar to a "close encounter of the third kind" (as designated by UFO researcher J. Allen Hynek and popularized by the 1977 film of the same name) of the modern UFO era (Mori 1987; Natsis and Potter 1995). In fact, illustrations in these texts (see figures 2 and 3) are very similar to depictions of modern UFOs (Shibusawa 1991; Mitsuse 1976; Takahashi 1996; Furukawa 1996; Matsuura 1998).
One book is Toen Shousetsu, published in 1825 (Nihon Zuihitsu Taisei Henshu-bu 1994). This book was written by many authors including Bakin Takizawa, who was a very famous novelist during the Tokugawa period in Japan. One original copy of this book exists in Tenri University Library, Tenri City of Nara Prefecture. The other book is Ume no Chiri, published in 1844 (Nihon Zuihitsu Taisei Henshu-bu 1994) and written by Nagahashi Matajirou, about whom little is known in detail. One original copy of this book exists in Mukyuu-Kai Library, Machida City of Tokyo Prefecture.
These books collected documents of intriguing events that supposedly occurred during the Tokugawa period. Stories in the books are considered to be based on old tabloid-like newspapers called kawara-ban. Their credibility is not high. Since it is possible to confirm that these books are very old and really exist in the above libraries, there is no doubt that the stories in the books were written before 1844, long before the modern UFO era.
Toen Shousetsu and Ume no Chiri
It is apparent that stories in the two different books describe the same incident, because the dates are similar and the incident occurred in the same year and in the same state in Japan. I have translated the stories into English as accurately as possible within my ability. Dates are lunar calendar.
Book title: Utsuro-fune no Banjyo (A Foreign Woman in the Hollow Boat)
The story takes place on February 22 in the spring of 1803. Offshore from a beach called Hara-yadori in the territory of Ogasawara Etchuu-no-kami (4000 koku'), who occupied a position named "Yoriai-seki" of Tokagawa shogunate at that time, a kind of boat was observed from the beach. People approached this boat using their small boats and eventually caught it. They towed it to the beach.
The boat was round and resembled a kind of kou-hako (a box used to burn incense). Its diameter was more than 3 ken (5.45 in). On the upper part of the boat, there were glass-fitted shoji (windows with lattice) and they were shielded by chan (a kind of waterproofed putty made from pine-tree gum). The bottom of this ship was reinforced by separated iron plates. This structure may protect the boat from destruction by sunken rocks. Since the glass-fitted shoji was transparent, the people could see the inside the boat, where they found a woman with strange features. Her appearance is shown in figure 2. Her hair and eyebrows were red, and her face was pink. It seemed that long white hair was added to her original hair.
The following head note was included by the author of Toen Shousetsu:
In a book named Rosia Bunken Roku (a book of travelers in Russia), we find the following sentence: "The slaves of the female dress is cylindrical and dress-radius becomes gradually smaller above the waist. The color of her dressed-up hair is changed to white using white powder." Judging from this sentence, this white hair of the foreign woman may be colored by the powder and she may be a woman who lives in a Russian dependency. More study in detail is required.
Her long hair may be made from fur or twisted strain. This kind of hairstyle could not be found in any literature. Furthermore, since her language could not be understood by anyone, none could ask her where she came from. This foreign woman held one square box whose size was about two shaku (60 cm) in her hands. It seemed that this box was very important to her because she held this box constantly, and she prohibited anyone from approaching it.
The objects found in this boat were investigated by the people. There was about two shou (3.6 liters) of water in the small bottle. (In a different book, the word "two tou [36 liters]" was used instead of "two shou" and that of "small boat" was used instead of "small bottle.") There were two pieces of carpet, cake-like food, and kneaded meat. While people discussed what to do about this boat, the woman observed them peacefully.
An old villager said, "This woman may be a daughter of a king in a foreign country and might have been married in her home country. However, she loved another man after marriage and her lover was put to death. Since she was a princess previously, she could get sympathy and avoid the death penalty. She had been forced to be put in this boat and was left to the sea to be trusted to fate. If this conjecture is correct, her lover's severed head is inside the square box. In the past, a similar boat with a woman inside drifted ashore in a beach not far from here. In that incident, a severed head placed on a kind of chopping board was found inside the boat. Judging from this kind of secondhand information, the contents of the box may be similar. This may explain why the box is so important to her and she is always holding it in her hands. We may be ordered to use much money to investigate this woman and boat. Since there is a precedent for casting this kind of boat back out to sea, we had better put her inside the boat and send it away. From a humanitarian viewpoint, this treatment is too cruel for her. However, this treatment would be her destiny."
Many foreign characters (see figure 1) were found inside this boat. I found similar characters on a British ship that recently arrived offshore from Uraga in Japan. From this observation, that woman may be a British, Bengali, or American princess. No one knows exactly. The woman and boat were illustrated by persons who were interested in this incident at that time and are shown in figure 2. I am somewhat disappointed because the illustrations and sentences are not consistent. If anyone knows anything concerning this incident, please let me know.
Ume no Chiri
Book title: Utsuro-fune no Koto (Concerning An Incident of The Hollow Boat)
On March 24, 1803, a strange boat drifted ashore on a beach named Haratono-hama in Hitachi state in Japan. The boat was hollow and its shape was similar to a rice-cooking pot. It had a kind of rimmed-edge at the center-level part of the boat. In the part above this edge, the boat was painted in black and had four small windows on four sides. All shoji (windows with lattice) were shielded by chan (a kind of waterproof putty made from pine-tree gum). The lower part of the boat was reinforced by steel bars. These bars looked to be made of Western-made iron of the highest quality. The height of the boat was one jyou, two shaku (3.64m) and its diameter was one jyou, eight shaku (5.45m).
A woman (or girl) was found inside this boat and her age appeared around twenty. She was about five shaku (1.5m) tall and her skin was white as snow. Her long hair vividly hung on her back. Her facial features were incomparably beautiful. Her clothes were strange and unrecognizable and her language was not understood by anyone. She held a small box in her hands and prohibited anyone from approaching this box.
In this boat, there were two pieces of a kind of carpet. They were very soft and of an unknown type. There was a kind of cake and a kneaded food. There was also some sort of meat. There was a cup, and its design was very beautiful, though no one recognized the design.
"Haratono-hama" is a territory of Lord Ogasawara-Izumi.
Folklore of Utsuro-fune or Utsubo-fune
When we read the above stories and see illustrations as shown in figures 2 and 3, we may wonder whether these stories are based on a true incident. In fact, people who are interested in UFOs all over the world as well as in Japan have regarded the stories and illustrations as records of a close encounter of the third kind that really occurred in 1803 in Japan (Mori 1987; Natsis and Potter 1985; Takahashi 1996; Furukawa 1996).
However, people who have some knowledge of Japanese folklore have noticed that both stories are similar to the Japanese folklore of Utsuro-fune or Utsubo-fune (Ishigami 1992). This folklore has been handed down in many areas of the country, especially the western parts of Japan. Similar folklore and myths can be found throughout the world, such as in the account of Noah's ark (Nagadome 1997). Iris possible that the origin of this folklore can be traced to the ancient national memory of Japanese immigration. In ancient times, people immigrated to the Japanese islands from many parts of Asia by using simple dugouts. After arriving at a Japanese island, some dominant families in Japan created the folklore based on the national memory and myth, in order to bolster the political legitimacy of their rule. The typical story of the folklore is that an ancestor of a family was a foreign noblewoman who crossed the sea by boat (Yanagida 1962). In the folkiore, a dugout or a small boat has been called Utsuro-fune or Uts ubo-fune. Utsuro in Japanese means "vacant" or "hollow." Utsubo is a kind of a hollow bag, and was used for holding arrows by Samurai in old Japan. Both words have often been used to describe a cavity in an old holy tree in some Japanese myths (Ishigami 1992). Since fune means "ship" or "boat," Utsuro-fune and Utsubo-fune have the same meaning, i.e., "hollow boat" (ship). It is apparent that these words are based on the structure of dugouts used in ancient times.
Yanagida Kunio (1875-1962), who was the great folkiorist in Japan, published a paper entitled "The Story of Utsubo-fune" in 1925 (Yanagida 1962). He was so famous as a folklorist that his complete works can be found in almost every university and public library in Japan. In his paper, he introduced many folklore of Utsubo-fune. For example, he presents a typical folkiore which states the origin of a Kawano family in Iyo district (present Ehime Prefecture) as follows:
A long rime ago, a fisherman named Wakitaro living on Gogono Island was working on the sea. He found a Urszebo-fune on the sea and he towed it to his home. He found a girl whose age was about twelve or thirteen inside this boat. She told him that she was a daughter of a king in China. Since she was involved in a scandal in her homeland, she was forced out to sea in this boat. The fisherman named her Wake-hime and brought her up. She later became a princess of a king in Iyo district and gave birth to Ochimiko, who was the beginning of Kawano family.
In his paper, we can find another interesting folklore that has been handed down as a song in Kyushu Island (figure 4). This song contains many phrases similar to those in the story Toen Shousetsu ". . . a daughter of a noble man ..."; " . . . she was sent into the sea in an Utsuro-fune because of her scandal ..."; "... the boat was made of red sandalwood, ebony, and Chinese wood..."; "...the glass (window) was shielded with chan..."; "...it was possible to distinguish between day and night through the glass (window)..."; "...the food in the boat was delicious cake...", etc. In some folklore, the boat is eventually forced to be sent away.
Yanagida Kunio has also referred to the story of Toen Shousetsu, and he concluded in his 1925 paper that the story is definitely fiction (Yanagida 1962). The basis of his conclusion are as follows:
(1) Apparently, the story is based on folklore that has been handed down in many parts in Japan. People will easily believe this story because they have always heard similar stories elsewhere.
(2) The characters found inside the boat (see figure 1) do not correspond to any language in the world.
(3) At the end of the story the boat is eventually sent out to sea with the woman inside. The story was constructed so that no one can verify this incident later.
(4) The features of the woman in the boat are very similar to those of a Western white woman. At that time, Japanese were afraid of Western countries such as Russia, Britain, and the U.S.A.
Identification of the Incident's Location
Yanagida's conclusions are persuasive. When we try to identify the exact place of the incident in Japan, his conclusions are further supported. To find the exact place where the boat drifted ashore, the following place names can be used:
(1) Haratono-[hama.sup.2] in a territory of Ogasawara Izumi in Hitachi state. (Ume no Chin)
(2) A beach called Hara-yadori in a territory of Ogasawara Etchou-no-kami in Hitachi state with 4000 koku. He had occupied a position named "Yoriai-seki" of Tokagawa shogunate. (Toen Shousetsu)
Since the word hama in Japanese means "beach" in English, "Haratono-hama" would face the sea. The word yadori means "stay" or "stay in shelter." In an old geographical dictionary (Shitanaka 1983) we can find the place name of "Yadori-shima (Island)" which was used as a port. So, "Harayadori" would also face the sea. The eastern border of Hitachi state, which is present Ibaragi Prefecture in Honshu Island, directly faces the Pacific Ocean as shown in figure 4. Given this information, it is reasonable to conclude that "Haratono-hama" or "Hara-yadori" existed on the eastern long seashore of Hitachi state in 1802.
We next check the names of Ogasawara Izumi or Ogasawara Etchuu-no-kami, whose territory encompasses the area in question. The family name Ogasawara shows that he was in the Guards Division called "Hatamoto" of Tokugawa family i.e., Shogun family. The biographical histories of "Hatamoto" have been well recorded in Japan and its document has been published (Ishii and Ogawa 1989). The name Ogasawara Izumi written in Ume no Chin can be found in this record, but he had no territory in Hitachi state. We can find the name of Ogasawara Etchuu-no-kami and find that his position was "Yoriai" in Tokugawa shogunate with 4500 koku in 1799 in this record. We can also find that he had territories in Hitachi state. These documents agree well with the story of Toen Shousetsu. So we can conclude that Ogasawara Etchou-no-kami really existed in 1803 and had territories in Hitachi state.
Now to identify the positions of his territories in Hitachi state. Territory names and lord names of the territories in Tokugawa period have been well recorded in official documents (Kimura 1980). We can easily find his three territories in Hitachi state. However, all his territories were inland and do not face the Pacific Ocean. Furthermore, no places whose names resemble Haratono-hama or Hara-yadori can be found in his territories. They are not found in Hitachi state in a geographical record of Tokugawa period (Shitanaka 1988), nor are they found in a famous large Japanese geographical dictionary first published in 1907 (Yoshida 1992).
These facts suggest that Haratono-hama or Hara-yadori vanished in Japan before 1907 or that they did not exist. Place names in the Tokugawa period have been well recorded in many documents in Japan. When the place name was changed, the original names can still be traced in the records (Shitanaka 1988). It is difficult to believe that these place names, where an amazing incident occurred, vanished between 1803 and 1907 with no trace even in the Tokugawa period. The only reasonable conclusion is that these names are imaginary.
If we assume that the story is a fiction, we understand that the writer cleverly mixed both imaginary and real names of persons and places to give credibility to the story. Later investigators cannot quickly or easily verify the story due to the imaginary names. This kind of technique is often used in modern April Fool's stories.
Illustrations of the Strange Boats
The last mystery is the illustrations of strange boats. According Yanagida's theory (Yanagida 1962), in the early version of the folklore, the boat was a simple dugout which is presently used in southern Asia. However, as time went on, people forgot the original shape of the dugout. To give credibility to the story, people had to improve the boat in the folklore because skeptics claimed that it would be impossible to travel across such a long distance in the ocean in a simple dugout. So, the roof (or the cover with windows) was added to the simple dugout. It is not difficult to consider that, as time went on, a simple dugout eventually became a hollow boat with glass windows and a reinforced structure as shown in figures 2 and 3.
It is unreasonable to assume that the boats as shown in figures 2 and 3 resemble modern UFOs. In the stories the boat did not fly and did nor even move by itself on the sea. Some parts of the boat were reinforced by the iron plates. This means that most parts of the boat were made of wood. The boat was constructed by the technology within human imaginations at that time.
Some UFO believers may claim that while the stories may be fictions, the illustrations of the boats may be based on a real UFO observed in the Tokugawa period in Japan. However, we can find no evidence that supports this claim. We notice that the boat structures as shown in figures 2 and 3 are consistent with the folklore data--remember the phrase "... it is possible to distinguish between day and night through the glass (window) ..." in a song from Kyushu Island. Applying Occam's razor, we can conclude that the resemblance between them and modern UFOs is accidental (Kamon 1998).
No records of the mysterious incident have been found in official documents in Japan. Hitachi state was not far from the capital Edo (Tokyo) and faced the Pacific Ocean (see figure 4). The beach in this state was very important for national security in the Tokugawa period (1603-1867). Therefore, most parts of eastern border of Hitachi state were occupied by the Mito-Tokugawa family who were the relatives of the Tokugawa (Shogun) family (Kimura 1980). It is unrealistic to believe that an amazing incident involving a strange boat and a woman on a beach in Hitachi state has not been recorded in any official documents of the Tokugawa period. 
Japan was closed to foreign countries during the Tokugawa period (1603-1867). After 1800, however, Western ships occasionally invaded Japan. Japanese were afraid--yet fascinated by--the outer world, especially Western countries, during this period.
During such an unstable social situation, people in Edo were interested in paranormal phenomena such as ghosts, monsters, ball lighting, etc., according to the records at that time (NHK Shuzai-han 1997). An unknown, clever writer might use a Western white woman in the folklore of Utsuro-fune.
Intriguing stories written in Japanese books published in 1825 and 1844 are apparently fictions based on Japanese folklore. The illustrations in these books are the results of a combination of the folklore and imagination.
I would like to thank librarians of Ibaragi Prefecture Library in Mito City in Japan for valuable information about the incident and Ms. Hisae Nagadome, who was a director of Tsusbima Historical and Folklore Museum, for valuable information concerning "Utsurofune." I also thank Mr. Ryutaro Minakami, who is chairperson of Japan Anti-Pseudoscience Activities Network (JAPAN), Mr. Toshihiro Kimoto, and Mr. Tsugio Satou for their encouragement and stimulating discussions.
Kazuo Tanaka is in the Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Gifu University, Yanagido 1-1, Japan 501-1193. Email tanaka@....
(1.) The word koku is a unit of volume measuring a quantity of rice-seeds, i.e., tax, in the territory used in Tokugawa period.
(2.) In Ume no Chiri, "Haratono-Hama" written in Chinese (ideogram) and the reading at its side written by kana (phonogram) can he found. In Toen Shousetu, "Hara-yadori" written by only kana can be found. Two Chinese characters of "Haratono" can be also read as "Hara-yadori" by kana. Therefore, these two place names can be considered to represent a same name.
(3.) For example, two British whaling ships arrived at "Ohtsu-hama" in Hitachi state in 1824. This incident can be found in the official document of Tokugawa shogunate (Hayakawa 1902). Of course, "Ohtsu-hama" is a real place name and can be easily found in the many records. Furthermore, several items of folklore of Utsuro-fune have been handed down in Hitachi-state (Yanagida 1962), and this state was near Edo. So, it was a most plausible place to everyone in Edo.
Furukawa, Kaoru. 1996. Soratobu Utsuro-fune (Flying Ursuro-fune), Tokyo, Bungei Shunjuu.
Hayakawa, Jyunzaburou. 1902. Tsuu Kou Ichi-ran (Lists of Ships That Arrived in Japan), Vol. 6, Tokyo, Tosho Kankou-kai, pp. 455-464.
Ishigami, Katashi. 1992. Nihon Minzokugo Dai jiten (Japanese Folklore Great Dictionary). Tokyo: Oufuu-Sha, pp. 164-465.
Ishii, Ryousuke and Kyouichi Ogawa. 1989. Edo Bakuhu Hatamo Jinmei (Biographical Dictionary of Hatamoto in Tokugawa Shougunate), Vol. 1, Tokyo, Hara Shobou p. 368.
Kamon, Shouichi. 1998. Edo-Jidai Hitachi no kuni ni hyouchaku shita UFO?, Journal of the Japan Skeptics 39-46.
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_____. 1994. Nohon Zuihisu Taise: The second series (Complete Collections of Old Japanese Essay), Vol. 2. Tokyo: Yoshikawa Koubun-kan, pp. 279-281.
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_____. 1988. Nihon Rekishi Chimei Tankei: Ibaragi-ken No Chimei (Geographical Dictionary of Japancec History: Ibaragi Prefecture), Vol. 8. Tokyo, Heibon-sha.
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